Qwanturank : Types of wireless networks

At the beginning of PCs, systems administration or networking was held for technophiles. Homes seldom had more than one. Although, recently, home computers are utilized for everything. From email and schoolwork to gaming, TV and social networking. The rising prevalence of handheld gadgets is making the wireless network more significant. Being educated about the different sorts of connections possible will help customers settle on a superior decision about the kind of network that is good for them.

The principal sort of wireless network is the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). A WPAN is made by the interconnection of two gadgets that are relatively near to one another. Normally, the two gadgets are in arm’s distance to one another. Another instance is the communication between a remote and a TV. An infrared light networks the two, permitting the remote to change the channel. Different illustrations are; the association between a PC and a console, and the association between a mobile phone and a Bluetooth.

Another widely used wireless network is the WLAN (wireless local area network). Several devices, networking through an access point make up the local area network. HAN- Wireless home area network is a perfect example of a LAN- local area network. All devices can share the LAN connection if it has an internet connection.

In order to cover a larger area than a local area network, a MAN – wireless metropolitan area network is needed or created. A wireless metropolitan area network links several locations in an area (general area).College campuses usually make use of a local area network (LAN) which is CAN- college area network for each branch. These branches networked together to form a MAN- wireless metropolitan area network.

A wireless wide area network (WAN) is larger than a wireless metropolitan area network (MAN). A wireless wide area network (WAN) is a network that connects electronic gadgets over a large geographical area, transferring information general points such as satellite dishes and telephone lines. The internet is a perfect example of a WAN (wireless wide area network).

An alternate type of wireless network is the Ad-Hoc Network. An Ad-Hoc Network is a decentralized kind of wireless network administration. It permits various gadgets to impart without the utilization of a switch or different access point. Rather, an Ad Hoc Network permits information to stream by every hub sending information from alternate hubs. Ordinarily, Ad Hoc Networks are made for a particular reason. Most Ad-Hoc systems are closed, signifying they don't have web access. A case of an Ad Hoc Network is the association between two mobile video game system. A connection is built up, information is traded and after that, the connection is broken and the system is annihilated.

Being educated about the diverse sorts of networks can make a difference, in that it is so hard to build up a wireless network. The Metropolitan Area Network, Local Area Network, Wide Area Network, the Wireless Mesh Network and the Ad-Hoc Network all have advantages and disadvantages. The needs of the end client ought to direct the kind of network the client ought to pick.

Welcome To The Wireless Darknet

darknet

What is the Darknet?

The Darknet is not new. Indeed, it was invented almost 50 years ago (in the 1970s) but it was not until 2010 that it began to be known to the general public.

To give a simple definition of Darknet, we can say that it is a hidden network on the internet and accessible only through some Deepweb browsers like TOR (the most famous and used). We will come back to this in more detail in our tutorial on how to access the Darknet later in this article.

The Darknet brings together all the sites on the Internet, and in particular those that have not been indexed on traditional browsers (Chrome, Firefox, etc.). This differs from our usual browsers on which we actually only have access to a small part of the existing sites on the web. Above, you will find absolutely everything without any limits. Our goal is not to list the content on the Darknet, nor to encourage you to go there, but simply to inform you about the existence of this universe of the web.

Quite often the Darknet has a negative connotation, and most certainly with good reason. Obviously, we are not followers of the concept or regular customers who go there regularly to do our shopping. However, it does not take more than a few seconds on the Darknet to realize the unusual and illegal content there. For example, we think of drugs, financial data or even literature that we would not find elsewhere on the internet.

If we wanted to play with words, we should actually speak of DarknetS in the plural . Indeed, there are different ecosystems and, like Chrome on the “normal web”, TOR reigns supreme in the world of Deepweb. Although confusion is very often made, the Deepweb is not equal to the Darknet. The latter is only a tiny part of the Deepweb.

After this brief and simple introduction to the Darknet, it's time to walk you through how to access it. We are going to present to you a quick and easy little guide that explains how to go to the Darknet anonymously and securely.

Dangers of the deepweb

Darknet market sites offer all types of illegal goods and services (drugs, false papers, counterfeits, data, money laundering). On these sites, users are very sensitive to their anonymity and security. The lack of a legislative framework has been compensated by the implementation of protection technologies: Tor and Bitcoin for anonymity, the development of a virtual identity specific to Darknet (on several sites) to increase the reliability of sellers, implementing drastic security measures to protect computers. These measures can be adapted in the public Internet to improve security and privacy protection.

There is a part of the Internet that cannot be accessed with a normal browser. It's the Darknet and there are all kinds of illegal goods. You can buy drugs, fake papers, counterfeits, credit card numbers or malware. When accessing this part of the Internet, users take great care, as they are aware of the dangers involved.

The first danger is to be identified. Given the illegal aspect of the goods traded, the actors (sellers, buyers, market operators) wish to remain anonymous. Therefore, these sites are not operated on the public Internet. We use an encrypted network, often Tor (The Onion Router), designed to anonymize communications, and a specific browser, for example the Tor-browser. The sites have a specific domain name (in .onion for Tor) which does not correspond to an address on the Internet (IP address), but to an address in the encrypted network. The police therefore cannot locate the site using its IP address. As all users use the encrypted network, their IP address also remains hidden.
Payments should also remain anonymous. Users therefore make all their payments with a cryptocurrency (usually Bitcoin).
As to be delivered, a user must give a physical address, there would be a risk, when the police manage to take control of the site that they can access all the contact details of the users. This is why communications between customers and sellers are always encrypted. The customer uses the public key that the seller posts on their page, to encrypt the information they send to the seller. Only the seller has the private key to decrypt the message. The buyer's address is therefore known only to the seller, who undertakes to delete it as soon as possible.

As the seller and the buyer are anonymous, they cannot lodge a complaint.
The second danger incurred is for a user to be cheated by his partner. This is the case with the seller who does not deliver, or who delivers a poor quality product, or the buyer who does not pay. As the seller and the buyer are anonymous, they cannot lodge a complaint. There is no court on the Darknet. Mechanisms have therefore been put in place to avoid these cases. The sites have reputation systems in place which allow a buyer to evaluate the transaction he has made. The reputation of a user will depend, as on e-Commerce sites, on the turnover and rating of buyers. Where the Darknet differs from the classic Internet is that “reputation” is transferable from one site to another. As sites are regularly seized and deactivated by the police, all the reputation established on a site A could disappear with this site. This is not the case. Another site B copies the reputation of the sellers of site A. It just remains to verify that the users with the same pseudonym are indeed the same. This is done using the vendor's public key (used to communicate encrypted as seen above). It serves as the Darknet's identity card and remains the same at all sites. If the same pseudonym uses the same public key, it means that it is the same person, so you can transfer your reputation. This allows a new site to start with sellers who already have a good reputation. It just remains to verify that the users with the same pseudonym are indeed the same. This is done using the vendor's public key (used to communicate encrypted as seen above). It serves as the Darknet's identity card and remains the same at all sites. If the same pseudonym uses the same public key, it means that it is the same person, so you can transfer your reputation. This allows a new site to start with sellers who already have a good reputation. It just remains to verify that the users with the same pseudonym are indeed the same. This is done using the vendor's public key (used to communicate encrypted as seen above). It serves as the Darknet's identity card and remains the same at all sites. If the same pseudonym uses the same public key, it means that it is the same person, so you can transfer your reputation. This allows a new site to start with sellers who already have a good reputation. you can therefore transfer your reputation. This allows a new site to start with sellers who already have a good reputation. you can therefore transfer your reputation. This allows a new site to start with sellers who already have a good reputation.
To secure the money transfer, there are two mechanisms. Either we use a trusted third party (escrow in English), the site for example, to which the buyer transfers the money to the order and which releases this money when the transaction is finalized. Either we use a Bitcoin multisig mechanism. In such a transaction, three people (the seller, the buyer, and the site) together create a Bitcoin account to which money is transferred. Then to have the money two of the three people must give their consent. Normally when the buyer finalizes the transaction, the site gives its agreement and the seller can dispose of his money. In the event of a problem, the site remains the arbiter of the transaction. In the event of a site fault, both buyer and seller can still access their money.

Visiting a Deep Web site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal.
The third danger is undoubtedly being the victim of a cyber attack. Darknet players all have very different interests. Site operators may want to destroy competing sites. They are also victims of blackmail attempts. Attackers bombard request sites and detonate them under load, this attack is known by the acronym DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service). The workaround strategy is to have plenty of access points at all times and to be able to cut off those attacked fairly quickly. Sent documents (pdf, programs, etc.) can also be used to spread malware. Since the people working on these sites are all criminals and some are cyber criminals, they have the know-how to spread such programs. Other actors are also very dangerous for the users of the Darknet, it is the intelligence and police forces which continually try to penetrate and / or dismantle these sites. They have the wherewithal to develop good malware and have a very high interest in taking down those sites. Visiting a Darknet site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal. People active on the Darknet all use a specific browser (the Tor-browser) and should also use a system in the form of a virtual machine in which to contain possible contamination. This virtual machine should only be used for Darknet use and reset very regularly. it is the intelligence and police forces that continually try to penetrate and / or dismantle these sites. They have the wherewithal to develop good malware and have a very high interest in taking down those sites. Visiting a Darknet site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal. People active on the Darknet all use a specific browser (the Tor-browser) and should also use a system in the form of a virtual machine in which to contain possible contamination. This virtual machine should only be used for Darknet use and reset very regularly. it is the intelligence and police forces that continually try to penetrate and / or dismantle these sites. They have the wherewithal to develop good malware and have a very high interest in taking down those sites. Visiting a Darknet site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal. People active on the Darknet all use a specific browser (the Tor-browser) and should also use a system in the form of a virtual machine in which to contain possible contamination. This virtual machine should only be used for Darknet use and reset very regularly. Visiting a Darknet site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal. People active on the Darknet all use a specific browser (the Tor-browser) and should also use a system in the form of a virtual machine in which to contain possible contamination. This virtual machine should only be used for Darknet use and reset very regularly. Visiting a Darknet site with a non-dedicated, hardened computer would be suicidal. People active on the Darknet all use a specific browser (the Tor-browser) and should also use a system in the form of a virtual machine in which to contain possible contamination. This virtual machine should only be used for Darknet use and reset very regularly.

“Crime as a Service”.
The Deepweb is a real danger for society. It is used by criminals for drug trafficking, counterfeit paper trafficking, counterfeit money trafficking. But above all, it allows a new form of crime, “Crime as a Service”. The criminals are no longer in an integrated structure, but each one only takes care of one task in the cyber-criminal chain (discovery of security vulnerabilities, writing an exploit, maintaining a malware deployment tool, maintenance of a bot net, rental of the botnet, money laundering). Everyone sells their services on the network and can concentrate on their core business.
The Darknet gives us to see a hyper secure ecosystem, in which technical and organizational solutions are pushed to their maximum to secure transactions despite a very inhospitable environment. The mechanisms implemented on the Darknet are adaptable in high-risk environments and for which levels of anonymity and security are necessary. However, we can see that even people with very high motivation and good technical knowledge manage to get caught. Security and complete anonymity are very difficult to achieve.

We are now going to explain to you, in the easiest and fastest way, how to access the Darknet anonymously and without risk. There are 3 steps in this tutorial to access the Darknet with maximum security. By doubling your connection with a VPN and the TOR browser, you will be able to truly hide to discover the dark side of the web.

The information age has changed, not just by the power of PCs to process data, additionally by the power of network between PCs. This communication or network is in charge of the proliferation of PC systems. Sharing of assets(hardware and software), information and sharing of processing load is part of the aims of sharing a PC network. A recent pattern in communication and PC industries is wireless communication. A wireless system does not make use of links, but rather uses radio waves. Such systems upgrade the usefulness of processing gadgets by liberating them from the area imperatives of a wired system. However, the wireless systems administration is mostly used by the tablet clients who move from one area to another for a day, there are also benefits for altered users. Numerous schools and organizations have an architecture that is unsuited for a wired system. The wired Network administration is exceptionally savvy in such environments. Examples of wireless networks are mobile phone network, terrestrial microwave network and Wi-Fi local network.

Wireless networks can be extensively divided into mobile wireless systems and fixed wireless system. Fixed wireless systems allow for a little or almost no versatility of the tool in line with the wireless network. For instance, a local area network (LAN) can be set up making use of wireless networks to dispose of the hassles of laying cables. The versatile wireless network allows for portability of the hardware, allowing the client to get data from any place and whenever. The tools utilized as a part of the versatile wireless network are a pager, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and smart phones with Internet access.

Wireless networks connect by beating infrared light or modulating radio waves. Wireless network administration switches are connected to the wired network framework by static transceivers. Wireless communication advancements utilized as a part of wireless systems consists of digital cellular, analog cellular, mobile radio network, CDPD- cellular digital packet data, satellites, microwave system and LMDS- local multi point distribution system. In spite of the fact that the information rates bolstered by analog cellular technology are low, it is the most prominent routines for wireless information-communication because of the wide accessibility of analog cellular services and modems. The most utilized wireless technologies include 2G and 3G advancements, wireless LANs(local area network), radio router technology, Wireless Local Loops (WLLs), Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), and Multi hop wireless network.